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Countable nouns and uncountable nouns

20 Juni 2012 | English

Countable nouns and uncountable nouns. Dalam bahasa Inggris ada dua macam kata benda (nouns) yaitu: countable nouns (kata benda yang dapat dihitung) dan uncountable nouns (kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung). Countable nouns, misalnya:  book, pen, goat, glass, child, man, apple, monkey dan lain sebagainya. Jika jumlah bendanya hanya satu, dapat diberi: a, an atau one di depan kata benda tersebut.

Contoh:

I see a dog.

They want a ball.

This is an eraser.

My father needs one magazine.

Namun, jika jumlah bendanya lebih dari satu (jamak), maka dapat diberi kata-kata: some, any dan kata bilangan lainnya yang bukan one.

Contoh:

I have some mangoes.

They want three balls.

He needs some pencils.

I don’t have any mangoes.

They don’t need any pencils.

He doesn’t want any books.

Uncountable nouns

Uncountable nouns atau kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung, misalnya: water (air), rice (nasi), sugar (gula), oil (minyak) dan sebagainya. Uncountable nouns tidak boleh diberi kata sandang: a atau an atau kata bilangan tentu. Untuk menyebut kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung, dapat kita pergunakan some atau any yang artinya sedikit. Walaupun demikian, kata bendanya tidak boleh dijadikan bentuk jamak.

Penggunaan kata some dan any dengan uncountable nouns: some dipakai dalam kalimat positive (+), Any dipakai dalam kalimat negative (-) dan interrogative (?).

Sebagai contoh perhatikan beberapa kalimat di bawah ini dengan format:

Some + Uncountable nouns

1. I have some money. (Saya mempunyai sedikit uang).

2. Supriyadi is drinking some water (Supriyadi sedang minum sedikit air).

3. We bought some ink yesterday. (Kami membeli sedikit tinta kemarin).

4. There is some lemonade in the bottle. (Ada sedikit limun di dalam botol).

5. There is some flour in the pan. (Ada sedikit tepung di panci itu).

6. Mother is cooking some rice. (Ibu menanak sedikit nasi).

Bentuk Negative (-)

Any + Uncountable nouns

Some diganti dengan any: any + Uncountable nouns

(+) I want some milk.

(-) I don’t want any milk.

(+) Supriyadi bought some paper this morning.

(-) Supriyadi didn’t buy any paper this morning.(+) There is some water in the glass.

(-) There isn’t any water in the glass.

(+) Mother is cooking some rice in the kitchen.

(-) Mother isn’t cooking any rice in the kitchen.

Bentuk interrogative (?)

(+) Supriyadi has some paint.

(?) Does Supriyadi have any paint?

a. Yes, he does./Yes, he has some paint.

b. No, he doesn’t./No doesn’t have any paint.

(+) Mrs. Supriyadi is buying some meat.

(?) Is Mrs. Supriyadi buying any meat?

a. Yes, she is./Yes, she is buying some meat.

b. No, she isn’t./No, she isn’t buying any meat.

(+) The children want some food.

(?) Do the children want any food.

a. Yes, they do./Yes, they want some food.

No, they don’t./No, they don’t want any food.

(+) My father bought some paint yesterday.

(?) Did my father by any paint yesterday?

a. Yes, he did./Yes, he bought some paint yesterday.

b. No, he didn’t./No, he didn’t buy any paint yesterday.

Catatan.

Sekarang perhatikanlah perbedaan pemakaian some dan any dengan countable nouns dan uncountable nouns di bawah ini:

Some + countable nouns

1. They need some rulers.

2. We want some oranges.

3. He needs some new shirts.

4. We, dont’t want any magazines.

5. She doesn’t see any birds.

6. Do you want any apples?

7. Does Supriyadi need any eggs?

Some + uncountable nouns

1. They need some soap.

2. We want some salt.

3. He needs some paint.

4. We, don’t want any cheese.

5. She doesn’t see any honey.

6. Do you want any beer?

7. Does Supriyadi need any ice?

Harap di ingat!
Some/any jika diikuti oleh countable nouns artinya: beberapa.
Some/any jika diikuti oleh uncountable nouns artinya: sedikit.
Any dipakai dalam kalimat negative dan interrogative.

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